Remembering Architect H. S. Chopra

Sarbjit Singh Bahga

Ask any educated person who are the planners and designers of Chandigarh? The instant reply will be, Le Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret, Maxwell Fry, and Jane B. Drew. But if you ask who were the Indian members of these foreign masters’ brigade? Perhaps a few, barring some knowledgeable  ones, shall be able to tell the names of A. R. Prabhawalker, U. E. Chowdhary, Jeet Malhotra, Aditya Prakash, M.N. Sharma, H.S. Chopra, M. D. Mande, R. S. Lall, Amar Rajinder Singh to name a few at random. In fact, it was this group of youngsters (at that time) who actually helped the great masters to translate their dreams into reality. None can deny their contribution to Chandigarh in particular, and modern Indian architecture in general.

For us the new generation of architects these members acted as our godfathers telling old tales of Chandigarh and its planners, thus linking out past with the present. But how far we shall remain lucky to avail this opportunity. With the demise of architect H. S. Chopra on 23rd March, 1994, we have lost not only our most revered master but also a vital link with our past. The author having been worked in close association with H. S. Chopra shares his views (about him) with readers.

H.S. Chopra (Harbinder Singh Chopra) was one of those geniuses who unlike their flamboyant contemporaries, opted for a low profile, for the reasons best known to him. He had worked on one of the top most posts (Additional Chief Architect) in the Department of Architecture, Government of Punjab. Chopra also served as Principal of the Chandigarh College of Architecture for a brief period, Senior Architect in the Punjab Agriculture University (PAU), Ludhiana and Senior Architect to Chandigarh Administration. During his stay with PAU he was Adviser to the Agriculture University, Trichur in Kerala.

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By virtue of having worked with modernists like Le Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret, Maxwell Fry, and Jane B. Drew, he had acted as a torch bearer to promote the principles of modern architecture in this region. Jane B. drew recorded her comments about H. S. Chopra as, “He has unusual feeling of form… and if he is given opportunity, this man can be relied upon to produce a building of real merit.” Pierre Jeanneret too was quite optimistic about him. In a commendation certificate to Harbinder Singh Chopra he wrote in 1957, “He has a real capacity for architecture and has developed plastic sense, and I am sure he will become a good architect.”

During his marathon career in service he was popular as humorous and humble, talented and true professional architect. His works eloquently stand as testimonials for excellence in architecture he had achieved. Prominent among these are, M.S. Randhawa Library, Museum of Rural Life of Punjab, Prithipal Singh Sports Centre in Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana, Anglo-Sikh War Memorial, Ferozepur, and Batra Cinema, Officers’ Apartments / Yatri Niwas, Nehru Hospital in PGI, Kairon Administrative Block, PGI, Chandigarh, Shopping complex on Madhya Marg, Sector-9, Chandigarh besides Dhillon Cinema at Manimajra to name a few. These works are representative of Chopra’s vision, creativity and ability to handle materials and technology to create functional as well as aesthetically pleasing built-forms.

70614312M.S. Randhawa Library, PAU Ludhiana

scan10001-copyPrithipal Singh Sports Centre, PAU, Ludhiana

anglo-sikh-war-memorial-at-ferozeshahAnglo-Sikh War Memorial, Ferozepur

2036759Anglo-Sikh War Memorial, Ferozepur

dsc04475Batra Cinema, Chandigarh

dsc04448Officers’ Apartments / Yatri Niwas, Chandigarh

dsc04456-copyNehru Hospital, PGI, Chandigarh

dsc04452Kairon Administrative Block, PGI, Chandigarh

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Kairon Administrative Block, PGI, Chandigarh

dsc04463Shopping complex on Madhya Marg, Sector-9, Chandigarh

These buildings have largely been built after 1960s and 1970s when the Indian architects were on the threshold of rejecting the blind following of the so called “International Style” and were striving hard to evolve an architecture suited to the local imperatives, of course, with internationally acclaimed technology and materials like reinforced concrete, brick, glass, steel, etc. This later on gave birth to what is more appropriately termed as “Internationalism.”

Like most of his top ranking contemporaries  Harbinder Singh Chopra contributed his share, but unnoticeably for the development of new form of architecture. Being endowed with tremendous amount of clarity in his vision he had conscientiously avoided hybridism in architecture in his pursuit to create an “esprit moderne.” He had neither let himself in a state of waveringness nor attempted irresolutely to alienate the traditional building elements or motifs and transplant them on the otherwise modern structures. Instead, he had tried to develop details to suit the function, materials, and technology. Contrariwise, whenever there was a need to create a traditional milieu, he had skilfully evaded the induction of modernistic expression. This is evident from his design of Museum of Rural Life of Punjab in PAU Ludhiana. The building of the Museum of Rural Life of Punjab is though a contemporary structure yet it is designed in a traditional way so as to create a sense of rural milieu and to reminisce it with ancient Punjabi House. Inside the museum typical old Punjabi way of life has been stilled in the form of full-size dummies of beautiful Punjabi women performing routine domestic chores. Other household goods and artifacts have so precisely been displayed in a natural manner that everything looks like ‘as it where it was.’

image04Museum of Rural Life of Punjab, PAU, Ludhiana

H. S. Chopra had always inclination for the use of brick and reinforced concrete as main building materials. In continuation with the tradition set by Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret he exploited these materials as much as he could. In consonance with the prevalent doctrine in 1960s and 1970s that natural, rough textured surfaces have more endurance than the smooth stucco surfaces, most of his buildings are either in exposed brick, concrete or combination of both. His understanding and ability to handle these materials was simply superb and can be equated with, if not excelled his foreign masters. Apart from the functional and technological precision, his works evoke distinct appeal in aesthetic values. In the pursuit to create beauty in architecture his approach was in consonance with his own personality. Harbinder Singh Chopra, a tall-built, vigorous, robust but polite man often loved bold, monumental, simple yet sculptural expressions. He had craving and commitment for achieving something intangible rather than mere fulfillment of physical scope of works. He had always attempted in his own way to accomplish the artistic urges in himself and gave the society magnificent and splendid pieces of architecture which the future generations may have the legitimate claim to feel proud of.

Remembering Patwant Singh – Voice of Modern Indian Design

Sarbjit Singh Bahga

When we talk about the subject of Architectural Journalism in India the first name which prominently figures in our mind is that of Sardar Patwant Singh. A multifaceted personality – an architectural journalist, writer, editor, historian, publisher, conservationist, political commentator and philanthropist , he single handedly launched his first monthly publication – The Indian Builder in 1953. The magazine was aimed to highlight the achievements and problems of newly independent India’s burgeoning building industry and its vital role in national development.

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Going ahead, unveiled the famous Design magazine in 1957 which he published and edited for 31 years till 1988. It was a revolutionary magazine, first-of-its-kind in the world at that time. Design critically covered architecture, urban planning, industrial design, graphics, and the visual arts. These subjects were the ones that, till that point of point had isolated audiences which rarely seemed to mix into each other. The magazine became a platform for the convergence of world famous architects and artists such as Peter Blake, Walter Gropius, Philip Johnson, Richard Neutra and Eero Saarinen.

scan0003Title page of one of the Design magazine.

Our association with S Patwant Singh commenced in 1985 when we were aspiring to learn architectural writing. We submitted some articles to him in 1985 for consideration to be included in Design magazine. Though we were not good at writing but somehow the contents and substance in these articles appealed to him and we were called to his Delhi office for discussion. Perhaps to encourage us in the field of architectural writing, he guided us to rewrite the articles in the format explained to us. We happily did the rewriting and resubmitted these articles which were published in the subsequent issues of Design from 1985 to 1987. It was a matter of great privilege for young architects like us to get published in such a pioneer magazine. But to our dismay the magazine discontinued in 1988 but his blessings remained with us throughout his long journey.

Patwant Singh was born on 28 March 1925. He was a son of a rich civil contractor and a prominent builder of Lutyens’ New Delhi. He grew up and got educated in Delhi in 1930s when Lutyens’ capital was being built. Singh began his career in family business of construction and engineering. He discovered a natural ability to write at an early age. His thinking, view points and opinions on the matters of architecture, urban design are timely recorded in the editorials of The Indian Builder and Design magazine which he published for 35 years. It is our wishful thinking that The Indian Institute of Architects takes the initiative and gets these editorials republished in the form of a book as these editorials are truthful reporting of history of architecture in India between 1953 and 1988.

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When he started the publication of Design magazine in 1957, the construction of Le Corbusier’s Chandigarh was in full swing. He covered the progress and growth of the city in a befitting manner and wrote many editorials of the impact of the city on the  contemporary architecture of India. In one such editorial he wrote, “Corbusier’s work in this country—Chandigarh more specifically—shook India out of the architectural stupor it had been in since long. It needed that shaking. Not that India lacks design talent, but just that it was the right time to point to the possibilities which lay beyond our obsession with burgis, chattris, and domes. We were beginning to look on these forms as representatives of the Indian tradition, while ignoring the true definition of tradition: the creativity inherent in the sensitive temperament of people. We had a tradition of creativity we were devaluing by plagiarizing the past. Chandigarh was the catalyst which pulled us out of that rut.”

Singh was a fearless thinker and writer. He was a regular contributor to the leading international newspapers, including New York Times, The Globe and Mail, The Independent, The Asian Age, Indian Express. He was known for his fearless writings and unbiased opinion as noticed in one of the articles that he wrote on New Delhi titled  “Capital plans that destroy a city”.

Singh’s contribution to the field of architecture, urban design, and conservation of historical built environment was not limited to writing, editing, and publishing. He was also instrumental in setting up the Urban Arts Commission in Delhi. He undertook series of discussions with the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1974, and convinced her to set up a statutory body to monitor new building projects and conserve historic structures in Delhi.

Apart from editing and publishing Design magazine, Singh has written about a dozen books on diverse topics, ranging from history, politics, and international affairs. Prominent among these are India and Future of Asia, Delhi: The Deepening Urban Crisis; The Golden Temple; The World According to Washington: An Asian View; Gurdwaras in India and Around the World. At the time of his death Singh was working on another book, “Beyond Forgiveness: The Destruction of Delhi’s Priceless Heritage”. The great legend left for his heavenly abode on 8 August 2009 at the age of 84.

In spite of his very busy life, Singh was able to spare some time for philanthropy too. He also travelled to many countries like Germany, USA, UK, Sweden, Australia, Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippine, often as the guest of their governments.

Patwant Singh will always be remembered for the valuable contribution he has rendered to the world and especially to Indian society as a whole. Most importantly, he gave the landmarks in the form of institutions dedicated for the social upliftment and also his valuable books which speak of his rich experience and aesthetic sense. To honour his services to the field of architectural journalism, the Indian Institute of Architects must constitute an award in his memory, something on the lines of –  ‘IIA Patwant Singh Gold Medal for Lifetime Contribution to Architectural Journalism’  which should be given annually to a towering personality who has excelled in the field of Architectural Journalism in India. This will be a true homage to a person like Patwant Singh, who, though not an architect himself served the profession of architecture more than any architect.

Some of the title pages of Design magazine:

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Some of the books authored by S Patwant Singh:

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Preservation of Architectural Heritage in the Hills

Sarbjit Singh Bahga

Abstract

Hills have and will remain one of the most attractive tourist destinations worldwide. Be it the serene landscape, pleasant weather or the beautiful architecture that hills are an abode to, the excitement to capture their view will never drop. Year on year people throng the hills in search of peace, adventure, fun and knowledge. All this while what has been deteriorating are our Mother Nature and the man-made beauty – our Hill Architecture. We need to protect them both, for a sustainable future and a memorable past. However, the current focus of this article is on the heritage we built hundreds of years back. The unique design, structure and variety of architecture in the form of Dhajji walls, Kath-kona walls, wooden temples, Dzongs ghats, British architecture, etc. can be found in the hills of Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Bhutan, etc. It speaks volumes about the effort, intelligence and meticulousness of the olden times. This article explains these various forms of architectural designs vividly. The urgent need to preserve and maintain this heritage has been stressed upon. This article suggests various ways and means, which if adhered to, can be the building blocks for a change which our heritage lying in the hills is longing for. 

Architecture is a social art. It represents living styles of people, their resources, material and techniques of construction relevant to the physical, topographical and climatological needs of any particular region in a particular time-span. Ruins of historical buildings not only link our past with the present but also make us knowledgeable to maintain harmonious continuity in our culture. What our fore-fathers have built is a source of inspiration today and what we built today will inspire future generations. Our culture has an uninterrupted continuity from pre-historic times to the present. If we want to ensure this continuity in future we must preserve “anything which can be looked on as artistic, picturesque, historical, antique or substantial, any work, in short over which educated artistic people would think it worthwhile to argue at all; as William Morris father of conservation movement in England said it. On preservation, Indian Constitution under the fundamental duties states,” it shall be the duty of every citizens of India to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.”

The traditional hill-Architecture with its vitality in crafts and skills is a valuable cultural resource. Any neglect of this resource will not only reduce the potential diversity of material artifacts but also make us poorer in the confidence with which they could continue to create knowledge. To create awareness for its preservation we must, understand its essence, rationality and appropriateness. When we talk of Hill-Architecture the first impression which comes to our mind is its vernacular style with organic character – the use of local building materials like mud, stone and timber without any artificial covering. The indigenous construction techniques like, Dhajji walls, in which mud and stone pieces are packed into wooden frames and the surface finished with coat of mud and lime plaster, or the kath-kona system of wall construction with alternative layers of wooden beams and courses of locally available stone without any mortar.

Then came the high pitched-slanting roofs made in timber and covered with stone slates or wooden shingles forming an interesting skyline in harmony with the mountain peaks in the background. This most dominating and stimulating feature of Hill-Architecture is the outcome of centuries old solution to the acute problem of controlling high rain/snow falls in the mountainous regions. All these features, coupled with high quality of craftsmanship and traditional skills to use the local building materials not only for functional purposes but also for fulfilling the artistic urges of the people in accordance with their rituals, beliefs and customs, make the Hill-Architecture perfect.

As testimony to this blend of function and beauty, there are still numerous pieces of architecture which have survived over a long period of time and unlimited forces of decay. Prominent among these are some wooden shrines in Himachal Pradesh which must have been built since early time e.g. Lakshana Devi Temple in Bharmour, Shakti Devi Temple in Chhatrari both in Chamba District and Markula Devi Temple in Udaipur in Lahoul-Spiti District. Though all of them were renovated to lesser or greater degree in subsequent periods of history yet these are worthwhile examples still available for study to research scholars. Towards the East in Bhutan there are some old architecture wonders called Dzongs, which are perfect examples of site-structure and surrounding unity. Prominent among them is Paro Dzong in Paro Valley in inner Himalayan Mountains of west-central Bhutan. This composite administrative and monastic centre having court of justice, revenue offices, monastery of the prevalent Vijraina Buddhist sect now dominant in Bhutan and royal palace for visiting royalty is a legacy of great architectural tradition of this mountainous region. The structure though a dominant one with massive white washed mud walls, yet blends well with dark hill slopes and snow clad mountains in the background. Its massiveness is well punctuated by decorative touches like carvings on the wooden windows and balconies painted dull red, the balustrades carved and painted in other primary colours.

lakshana-devi-temple-in-bharmourLakshana Devi Temple in Bharmour

shakti-devi-temple-in-chhatrariShakti Devi Temple in Chhatrari

Markula Devi templeMarkula Devi Temple in Udaipur in Lahaul-Spiti District

In Darjeeling the Ghoom Buddhist Monastery situated 6 kilometres away from town and Bhutia Basti Monastery situated below Chowrasta are some of those Buddhist shrines in the region which can be considered as landmarks in the traditional hill-architecture.

ghoom-buddhist-monastery-darjeelingGhoom Buddhist Monastery, Darjeeling

One of the beautiful examples of the community architecture and urban planning in the northern part of Himalayan region is the densely built-up portion of the city of Srinagar along the river Jhelum. Though developed in a long time-span of more than six hundred years, yet the cohesiveness and proportional harmony are the unique features of this built urban form. The river and parallel streets running behind the buildings abutting the river edge, on both its banks act as main circulation arteries. Cross bridges at regular intervals interconnect these streets. Narrow cross lanes emerge from these streets and descend in flight of steps (ghats) down to the level of water in the river, which are the major areas of community activities. Delicately built in timber frames and brick masonry, the three to four storied houses along the river front have endless variations in the treatment of façade and steeply sloping roofs. The other typical feature of these houses is a cantilevered bay window forming three or five sided seating alcoves inside these river-front houses.

Another feature of the river front is the low-income housing in boats-moored along the river edge near ghats. Locally known as doongas, these house boats have linear arrangement of multi-functional rooms with kitchen at the end. Walls of the doongas are of wooden panels inserted between frames and roofs are gabled and covered with wooden shingles with ridge running along the length of the boat. For ventilation purposes either some panels in the walls can be slid out or some hinged sections along the ridge of the roof can be lifted up. These doongas and river front houses are great assets of our traditional craftsmanship.

doongas-or-house-boats-in-srinagarDoongas or house boats in Srinagar

Later in the history, from end of 18th Century till the beginning of 20th century, the hill architecture underwent as enormous change in its form and character under the British Rule. During this period, the Britishers developed more than six dozen hill stations all over India. Out of these Mussorrie, Dalhousie, Nainital and Shimla are some prominent stations in North India. Shimla, the jewel among all of them have numerous buildings built in the Elizabethan style of Architecture. Viceregal Lodge, Rothney Castle, Barnes Court, Auckland House, Wildflower Hall, Gorton Castle, Legislative Assembly Chamber, Christ Church, Kennedy House and Gaiety Theatre are some of the majestic and enchanting buildings having architectural, historical and archaeological importance. Among these the Viceregal Lodge is most magnificent and fascinating piece of hill-architecture. Built by Lord Dufferin in 1888, this stone house continues to occupy a privileged position. Presently, it houses the prestigious Indian Institute of Advanced Studies. Situated amidst the dense forests and lush green lawns on a hill top, it commands a panoramic view of the picturesque summer hill. The masonry of the walling is light blue limestone and wrought stone work is all of sandstone of a very fine grain having a beautiful light grey tint. It is famous for its décor and amazingly beautiful woodwork in teak and walnut.

viceregal-lodge-shimlaViceregal Lodge, Shimla

The Gaiety Theatre which was built in 1887, served as cultural centre for the English residing in Shimla. It is the finest example of the 19th Century theatre- architecture. The small stage stands on the end of dome-ceilinged hall. The acoustics are so fine that the smallest whisper is clearly carried to the audience as far back as last bench of the 250 capacity hall. It was built when public address system was unheard of and voice culture was needed to convey the exact emotions.

The Kennedy House, named after its owner Captain Charles Pratt Kennedy is the first permanent house built in European style in Shimla in 1924. Subsequently, it acted as a trend-setter in the hill architecture that developed during the British Rule. This substantial Villa presently houses several Government/Semi-Government offices.

In short, we have countless such examples of built forms having historical, architectural and archaeological importance. All of them have their own significance and contribution to our rich cultural resource and strongly need to be protected against the forces of modernization. The migration of population, from the villages to the cities for better employment opportunities, the advent of new inorganic building materials and technological advancements, rising land prices and commercial exploitation of space, more frequent contacts with international influences and rapidly changing land uses are some of the factors posing serious threat to our traditional hill-architecture, and immediate efforts should be made for its preservation.

Fortunately, we have many government, semi-Government and voluntary organizations working in the field of preservation of our built cultural heritage in India. Prominent among those are Archaeological Survey of India (A.S.I.), Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH), National Research Laboratory for Conservation of Cultural Property (NRLCCP) at Lucknow, Indian Heritage Society, Conservation Society of Delhi, The Golconda Society and Save Bombay Group. Besides, there are several academic institutions and voluntary action groups engaged in the field of conservation. Though the emergence of these Organizations, evidence a healthy professionalism taking root in India, yet a lot needs to be done to make the conservation/preservation a broad based public movement in the spirit of the fundamental duties laid down in the Constitution of India.

We should assert and use our influences and resources to create awareness in the society to value and preserve historical-built-environments of which hill-architecture is a part. The electronic and print media should come forward in making the preservation of our rich cultural heritage a peoples’ movement. Ours is, still largely a traditional society and the conservation of tradition or its elimination is an important issue in defining the nature of our future development. Any laxity on our part will result in break with the tradition, raising questions about the appropriateness of change.

To make conservation and preservation more effective and a peoples’ movement there is a need to thoroughly consider and implement the following points:

  • There should be special heritage cells in the Central/ State Government’s Town Planning Departments, Architecture Departments, Urban Development Authorities, Municipal Corporations etc. These cells should be entrusted with the job of identification of heritage zones and buildings of archaeological, historical and architectural importance required to be preserved and work out the necessary strategy plans.
  • To involve the people, Advisory Committees should be formed at City/Town levels. These Committees should comprise of prominent citizens from the concerned fields like History, Geography, Archaeology, Town Planning, Architecture, Engineering, Economics and Law etc. These Committees will keep an eye on the new urban development taking place in their respective areas and inform the authorities of any victimisation of any historical-built-environment.
  • Technical Universities, Art and Architecture colleges and similar Institutions should introduce special subjects on conservation/preservation in their curriculum so as to give greater emphasis to the study of the history of Architecture.

These measures will help a great deal in creating mass awareness not only to protect and preserve our historical-built-environments but also to plan our future in harmony with our past. Only then we can ensure an uninterrupted continuity in our culture.

ConclusionWe can summarize that hills are home to a plethora of architectural designs and techniques. Therefore, we need to strive for continuous improvement in maintaining the Hill Architecture treasure and develop innovative ways of doing so. A collaboration from all fronts of life – academia, government, private entities, individuals, is required to create a future where our children can have a wholesome view of the past with a lot more to learn and remember!

 

Sustainable Architecture: Punjab Mandi Bhawan, Mohali

Sarbjit Singh Bahga –

It is widely known today that Sustainable Architecture refers to the creation of a building, structure or composite built-environment through a process that is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building’s life-cycle: from site selection to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation and demolition. Sustainable buildings are aimed to reduce the overall impact of the built-environment on human health and natural environment by:

  • Saving energy through passive and active means.
  • Efficiently using water and managing storm water / recycled water.
  • Protecting the occupants’ health by improving indoor air quality, and enhancing productivity.
  • Reducing waste, construction materials, pollution and environmental degradation.
  • Improving the micro-climate by landscaping the surroundings.

In India we have a long tradition of sustainability. It is deeply rooted in our culture. The holistic approach was the mindset of our forefathers. The Indian way of life is aparigraha (minimum possession), conservation (minimum consumption), and recycling (minimum waste). These three attributes are the guiding principles for sustaining buildings. With these attributes and its rich heritage, India can make a substantial contribution in this field and eventually lead the world on the path of sustainability.

Less than a hundred years ago, Industrial revolution came to India and changed the many of traditional sustainable practices in Indian buildings. The insatiable thirst for progress and comfort-at-any-cost altered the equation with nature forever. Concrete, steel, aluminium, glass, and later plastics became the dominant construction materials, beyond stone and wood of yesteryears, Power supply, artificial lighting, water supply and disposal, thermal environment control within built-environment, are no longer the luxuries but are the necessities today. Over the years Indian architects are striving hard for striking a balance between the two extremes i.e. (1) providing modern amenities and comforts, and (2) reducing the negative impact of buildings on the natural environment. In the light of the above, the author presents a case study of one building- Punjab Mandi Bhawan, Mohali, India- which is incidentally designed by him.

PUNJAB MANDI BHAWAN, MOHALI:

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Punjab State Agricultural Marketing Board is a semi-government corporate body established in 1961 with an objective to control and supervise the marketing network of sale, purchase, storage and processing of agriculture produce in the state. It is also a local authority with power to acquire, hold and sell property.

Earlier the Board was functioning from its own head office building in Sector-17, Chandigarh. With the growth of its activities and increase in staff strength, its office space became inadequate. More so there is acute shortage of parking space around it. The Board thus decided to construct its bigger and efficient corporate office building in Sector-65 A, Mohali adjacent to Chandigarh.

The new Head Office Building becomes part of large multi-utility complex comprising state-of-the-art fruit and vegetable market, commercial shops and showrooms established by the Board on a 20-acre plot. The Head Office Building is located on a plot of two acres on the south-west fringe of the complex. It is approachable from two sides, one from main road on north-west and the other from side road on the south-west side.

Challenges before the architect were:

  • To design the office building which will match in comfort and ambiance with modern corporate offices being built now-a-days.
  • To evolve an architectural vocabulary which will be a blend of those of Corbusian era as well as latest trends in office buildings viz-a-viz new materials and technologies?
  • To make building sustainable / energy efficient and portray these measures on its exterior and interior expression.

The building is located on a plot of 2.08 acres (10,067 square yards). It has an area of 152000 square feet on six floors in addition to 57000 square feet in the basement. Covered area on ground floor has been kept minimum that is 24950 square feet. Thus the ground coverage is only 27.5 per cent. Out of the remaining 72.5 per cent open area minimum has been kept for vehicular movement and surface parking leaving sufficient area for green parks. These parks are envisaged to improve the micro climate around the building.

Basement is meant for parking of 150 cars and requisite services. Two circular ramps provide ingress and egress to the basement. The ground floor accommodates mainly entrance foyer, multipurpose hall, and miscellaneous services like bank, health clinic, gymnasium, maintenance stores etc. all the main offices are on upper five stories.

The built-form of the office building has been evolved ingeniously keeping in view all the constraints and goals. In plan, the block is fragmented into three blocks. Two square blocks of 75 x75 feet size each at the ends have been rotated to an angle of 45 degrees. By doing this major portion of the office building made to fall in north –south direction which is considered good orientation. These blocks which accommodate the major chunk of the offices draw natural light mainly from north or south side. East and west facades have been made largely blank. The central block which accommodates rooms of senior officers remained in south-west and north-east directions –the orientation dictated by the lay of the plot. Out of these two directions, the north-east side is considered good as it receives morning sun which is always welcome. Hence no special treatment was required. The unwanted sun on the south-west side has been cut off by a combination of vertical louvers and horizontal roof overhangs. This vocabulary has been inherited from Le Corbusier as the architect wanted to incorporate it in the design of this building as a mark of reverence to the master especially when it falls in close vicinity to his works.

As per the client’s brief given to the architect, the building has to incorporate the latest innovations for human comfort and ambiance. As a result the architect has to go in for a fully air conditioned building with ultra modern gadgets, lighting, furniture etc. Since the building has to be hi-tech and fully air conditioned the need to incorporate sustainable architecture / energy efficient measures becomes even more.

Saving energy through passive and active means

The following measures were taken to reduce the energy consumption in the building:

  • Moulding and orienting the building in right direction.
  • Exploring the concept of mutual shading.
  • Minimizing the penetration of sun by vertical louvers and horizontal roof overhangs.
  • Emphasis of natural light.
  • Drawing maximum day light from north and south directions.
  • Making east and west facades predominantly blank.
  • Use of cavity walls on outer façade.
  • Use of double-skin solar control glass (6mm+12mm+6mm) which blocks upto 73% of solar heat by reflecting it to the outside.
  • All solid portions of external façade are clad in aluminium coated panels (ACP) which also reflect the solar heat outside. Also the gap in between the structural wall and cladding acts as cavity which further cut off the solar heat.
  • Special efforts have been made to cut off the heat of sun from terrace. Use of foam concrete has contributed a lot in this regard.
  • Incorporation of building management (BMS) and Light Management System (LMS) for optimal use of air conditioning and artificial lighting.

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 Efficiency in using water and managing storm water

While designing the building, efforts have been made to use the potable water very efficiently. All the fixtures and fittings in the washrooms kitchens and pantries have been selected with a view to minimize the use of water. Likewise the rain water has been managed quite effectively. A sufficiently large underground rain-water collecting tank has been constructed in the front lawn. The entire rain water from the flat roof terrace, plaza and paved areas at ground floor is being collected in this tank. This water is then used for irrigating the landscaped areas around the building. The average annual rainfall in this region is 1110 mm, so sufficient water is available for the purpose. This way the potable water (which uses lot of energy) is saved to a large extent.

Improving indoor air quality, and enhancing productivity

While designing the building sincere efforts have been made to create a healthier, enjoyable, comfortable and more productive work environment inside the building. Such environment incorporates good air and light quality, views to outside, comfortable temperatures, minimal noise pollution and low-toxicity ambiance. Good indoor air quality has been ensured by adequate intake of fresh air through mechanical air handling systems. It is a well known fact that most people prefer to work in natural light and have access to outside views. Special emphasis has been laid on providing natural light in all work areas as well as circulation areas. Fenestrations /glazing have been provided so judiciously that almost all areas get natural light throughout the day. Even the inner circulation areas are well lit with natural light. One will notice that on any given day, in a fair-weather, there is very little dependence on artificial light. This has been achieved by avoiding very deep areas, that is, away from external glazing. A full-height atrium in the centre is top-lit through a giant skylight fitted with translucent poly-carbonate sheets. This cut-out together with stairwells (which also abut external glazing) are sufficient to provide adequate natural light in the central circulation areas.

Work stations have been accommodated in open halls in the ends. These halls receive abundance of natural light from all sides. Each and every work area also gets natural view to the outside. Another major factor to indoor environment quality is temperature control. It has been taken care of fully with latest provisions like central air-conditioning, heating, temperature control devices etc. Noise can interfere with concentration and conversation and cause fatigue, irritability, headaches and stress. Special efforts have been made to minimize noise in the interiors so as to create workable and pleasant work place. Double-skin glass and cavity walls on external sides cut off the outside noise to a maximum extent. In the interiors, false ceilings have been provided in semi-perforated mineral-fiber sheets which absorb internal noise adequately. Besides the above, special emphasis has been laid on selecting the materials used in interiors which emit less volatile organic compounds and are thus less harmful to users’ health.

Reducing waste, construction materials, pollution and environmental degradation

The building is constructed in reinforced-cement-concrete frame structure with brick in-fill walls. These materials are locally available, durable, maintenance free and easy to use. Apart from this, these materials generate very less waste during construction. The concrete was prepared in ready-mix plant temporarily located at site and was being prepared as per exact requirements. So there was absolutely no wastage. The broken bricks produced some waste but this was used underneath the floors as brick blast.

External finishes of the building include aluminium-coated panels, toughened-double-skin glass with aliminium frames. Aluminium and glass are, no doubt, materials with high embodied energy, but their application have been preferred due to the following reasons:

  • These materials contribute to lower operating requirements.
  • These materials can more easily be reused and recycled if required in future.
  • These materials will significantly extend building’s life.

Use of wood has been completely eliminated as timber extraction from forests has the potential to cause habitat loss, species extinctions and to displace indigenous people from their lands.

All false ceilings in the building are in gypsum board and mineral-fiber sheets. Both these materials are recyclable. In flooring, either granite stone or vitrified tiles have been used. These materials are very durable, hard, maintenance free and do not absorb dust, thus remain clean. All the internal partitions are in locally made clay bricks with cement plaster and good quality paint.

Improving the micro-climate by landscaping the surroundings

Efforts have been made to improve the micro-climate by landscaping the earmarked open spaces around the building besides due inputs have been made to minimize the impact of development on natural environment by simple measures such as protecting the top soil, landscaping with local native plants, minimizing soil run off during construction and control the water flow across the site. Social and visual amenity has been improved by allocating space for lawns in the site. These lawns are ideal places for community interaction amongst the staff during lunch breaks. Apart from this these landscaped areas add grandeur to the built environment and make it more productive, colourful, and attractive. Since the plot area is limited there is little space for big trees. Therefore some indigenous trees have been planted along the periphery. When fully grown, these trees will provide shade to the driveways and protect the building from harsh summer sun.

The building is a showcase of architect’s accumulated philosophy and incorporates salient features like ‘strict geometric order’, ‘symmetry’, ‘clarity in structural systems and services’, ‘use of contemporary materials and technology’.

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 Project Details:

  • Location: Sector -65 A, Ajitgarh, Mohali.
  • Area of plot: 2.08 Acres.
  • Covered area: 2, 09,335 Sft.
  • Covered area on ground floor: 24950 sft.
  • Ground coverage: 27.5 per cent.
  • Architect: Sarbjit Singh Bahga, Punjab Mandi Board, Chandigarh.
  • Project team: Baljit Kaur, Kulwinderjeet Kaur, Ravinder Kaur, Parwinder Kaur, Deeksha, Darshan Singh.
  • Contractor: Deepak Builders, Ludhiana.
  • Structure: Harbhajan Singh, Techpecific, Mohali.
  • HVAC: Anuj Aggarwal, Ambience, Panchkula.
  • Electrical: N.K.Jain, Panchkula.
  • Networking: R.K.Dhanda, Ludhiana.
  • Project coordination and supervision: Engineering Wing of PMB headed by Chief Engineer R.P.Bhatti.
  • Cost: Rs. 66.00 crores.

Significance of Open Spaces in Architecture

Sarbjit Singh Bahga –

Architecture is the art of creative play of spaces, both covered as well as open. Covered spaces or built-up masses have tangible qualities and they are capable of recording photogenic impression on the minds of the viewers.

Open spaces, on the other hand, have something intangible in them, which can only be felt or experienced by involving oneself in them. These spaces by themselves have no tangible expression or aspect but they can enable the viewers to appreciate the beauty of physical massing of the other. One, without the other, has little or even no relevance in architecture or urban design. The intimacy and quality of relationship between the covered and open spaces, is key to good architecture. One can feel this relationship. It is like a poem, good or not so good poem. Even in not so good a poem, the composition of words convey of being it a poem. But if the message that these words convey have stimulating and lasting impact on the minds of the readers, we call it a good poem.

Similar is the case of a sculpture. A cylindrical piece of wood or a cubical mass of clay, rock or concrete are not sculptures themselves. These are only the raw materials or basic forms. To make a sculpture out of them one needs to carve some portion out of it, leaving thus a void. It is that void or negative space that makes sense. The aesthetic quality of a sculpture depends upon the creative play of solids and voids.

Likewise, in architecture the negative or open spaces if creatively and harmoniously blended with the positive or covered spaces, can relieve the harshness of built-form while complementing it.

The inter-relationship between built-forms and open spaces (if exceptionally good) can have a lasting impact on the minds of viewers. One can recall one’s experience (how much old it may be) of a visit to a good piece of architecture or composite built-environment. What is that which have entered and lasted for long period in our subconscious? It is more of the experience of negative spaces than the positive ones. One may forget the architectural treatment of the facades of the Cannaught Place, Fatehpur Sikri, Jama Masjid, Golden Temple or some south Indian temple complexes, but it is the feel of the negative spaces enclosed by positive massing that have remained in our subconscious for so long a time. An architectural critic has very rightly said,” It is the open spaces that reflect clearly the strong sense of vitality that hold these complexes together. The spaces are rich and varied with a scale that befits the function they are required to serve.”

To achieve perfect ‘yin and yang’ relationship between the covered and open spaces and to make the latter more appropriate, rationale, purposeful and aesthetically appealing the following areas must be explored to the best of one’s imagination, experience, and creativity. These include scale, proportions, size and shape, spatial arrangement, continuity/relationship with adjoining spaces, besides, of course, purpose, treatment and texture, identity etc.

The scale, proportions, size and shape though are all interrelated terms, yet each one deserves to be given a conscious thought. More than that it becomes of paramount importance – the self-drafted guidelines indicating what? What should be the scale, proportions or size and shape? To achieve precision in thought one has to be extra-ordinary space sensitive, constant observer and self critic. It is only after the firm conviction that one should start the process of designing the built-environment. The end result then depends upon one’s ability to translate abstract ideas into reality.

The scale and proportions of open-to-sky enclosed spaces are as vital aspects as in the case of covered spaces or built-up massing. The narrow open spaces enclosed by comparatively high built-forms give a feeling of claustrophobic feeling while the sprawling spaces with horizontal massing around give a feeling of agoraphobia. Likewise, different shapes of these spaces give different feelings. Irregular spaces convey informal character while the geometrical shaped spaces tend to look more formal. The circular, rectangular, triangular, square and oval shaped spaces are capable of unfolding variety of experiences. It all depends upon designer’s ingenuity that which type of space is required in a particular situation.

The next in the line we may put the element of spatial arrangement i.e. the system or combination of number of open spaces. If variety of such spaces is envisaged in a particular built-form, it must form prelude whether these should be in conjunction with each other or in isolated denominations. Again this becomes a matter of designer’s personal experience and imagination that which way one chooses and what are the results one is looking for? If a feeling of sequential spaces with gradually unfolding new vistas is the pre-requisite then one has to opt for a system of contiguous open spaces lest, the combination of isolated spaces may be adopted. Besides the above, the relationship between the open spaces and covered ones is, nonetheless, an important factor to be thoroughly considered. If an abrupt relationship between the open and covered spaces is the need of a particular situation, the same can be achieved by enclosing open spaces with massive external surfaces of the built-form. Contrariwise, for a gradual transition from covered to open spaces, semi-covered/semi-enclosed spaces in the form of verandahs, roof-overhangs, canopies or pergolas may be designed to decrease the degree of abruptness of change.

‘Purpose’, of course, is a primary factor of consideration. Before initiating the process of carving out open spaces, designer needs to be absolutely clear in his/her mind that what is the intended purpose to be fulfilled. Is it utilitarian in nature, like gatherings and social interactions? If so, the question like, how large the space should be, how it will be accessible, where it should be located, must be answered by the designer himself. If the space is required for climatological reasons, again one has to consider thoroughly and make sure what purpose it is intended to be fulfilled. Is it cross –ventilation or lighting or both? In the regions where climate is hot and dry, narrow open spaces which can remain cool during the day due to mutual shading of adjoining built-forms may be useful. Such spaces if imaginatively and strategically located can be used as an outdoor living area during winter when the inner rooms are cold or as sleeping areas on summer nights while the inner rooms emit the heat absorbed during the scorching day. Similarly in hot and humid climate a system of sequential open spaces together with appropriate fenestrations may help in generating continuous air-currents.

Treatment and texture too, is an un-ignorable factor. The nature of landscape must be in tune with all the factors discussed above. Landscape should be representative of the broad functions of the built-form. There is hardly any need to convince that details and décor of open spaces in hospitals, offices, schools, hotels or apartments have to be different from each other. Besides the use, the factors like macro and micro climate of the area, the initial cost as well as subsequent maintenance cost, soil conditions, availability of water, and types of vegetation that can be grown, must be given serious thought before starting the actual detailing work.

Though the consideration of number of above said factors may result in achieving individual identity of every space yet a sincere effort in this regard may help in achieving better results. Every space must have an identity of its own. This will provide a sense direction to the viewers. Intentionally created focal points or landmarks may help people to orient themselves in the built-environment and help identify an area.

Besides the above mentioned aspects, which are generalized in nature, there may be many more particular issues need to be explored thoroughly by the architects or urban planners themselves. The purpose of this paper, as may be evident, is not to provide any ready-reckoner for designers. Instead, it is to emphasize the need to realize that open spaces viz-a-viz urban design and architecture are perhaps more vital aspects then that of built-forms. Hence, it is direly required to devote greater attention to their planning and designing. In fact, it will be more appropriate to conceive built-form not only as a solid but as spaces modeled by solids.

central_park_connaught_place_view_from_parikarma_restaurantCannaught Place, New Delhi

fatehpur_sikri_agraFatehpur Sikri

MUSLIMS OFFERING NAMAJ ON THE OCASSION OF EID AT JAMA MASJID IN THE CAPITALJama Masjid, Delhi

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Golden Temple, Amritsar

yoga-7592Capitol Complex, Chandigarh

CHANDIGARH: An Ideal Place for Architectural Tourism

Sarbjit Singh Bahga —

Chandigarh the capital city of Punjab and Haryana States, as all know has turned out to be one of the boldest experiments in architecture and town planning. Being a newly built city and that too designed by world renowned architect-planner Le Corbusier and his team comprising Pierre Jeanneret, Maxwell Fry and Jane drew, it has attracted global attention. As a result it has emerged as a one of the most sought after destination for architects, planners, engineers besides the general tourists from all over the world. The city is bounded by two seasonal choes, or rivulets-the Patiali Rao and the Sukhna-in the north-west and south-east respectively. It extends in the north-east right up to the foothills of the Shivaliks. Its altitude varies between 304.8 metres and 365.7 metres above sea level. The region experiences extremes in climate. The temperature could rise 45° C in summer and drop to freezing point in winter.

Jawaharlal Nehru inspired the planners as,” …this shall be the new city of free India, totally fresh and wholly responsive to the aspirations of the future generations of this great country, and that the city shall be free from all shackles and shall be unfettered by the traditions of the past … the city shall be so built and nurtured that it shall be a model for our glorious future growth of the country.” The development of the city in the last five decades has proved Nehru’ dreams true.

According to its planner’s thinking towns are biological phenomena, and they have a brain, heart, lungs, limbs and arteries like human beings. So the Capitol Complex was placed at the top of the town because he likened it to the intellect of man, which emanates from the brain or the head. The Industrial and the Educational belts on either side of the city symbolise the limbs. The City Centre with commercial buildings, shops and offices represents the heart. The spacious parks and green belts which run through the city provide the lungs. The network of roads for vehicular traffic and foot paths for pedestrians constitutes the circulatory system. To sustain harmonious overall development and to eliminate haphazard growth, a number of architectural controls have been introduced. Apart from the byelaws which govern and lay down minimum standards of light, ventilation, living areas and sanitation, each plot of land in the city has been zoned by attaching to it a specific use and also controlling the building volume that can be developed on it. The basic planning unit of the city is a sector, 800 by 1200 metres with a population varying from 3,000 to 20,000 (or even much more in new sectors) depending upon the size of plots and the topography of the area.

Chandigarh is now almost 60 years old. During these years its planning has been put to the test in almost all quarters; road patterns, sector layouts, distribution of civic amenities and future growth besides, of course, the aspirations of inhabitants. K. R. Narayanan, the President of India while, opening the International Conference ‘Celebrating Chandigarh-50 years of the Idea’ at Chandigarh in January 1999, remarked, “Chandigarh may be a concert with many a discordant note….But it has come up and has had 50 years of growth and development. Nehru had wanted a city unfettered by the traditions of the past and Le Corbusier’s modernism and internationalism answered the requirement. Yet, Chandigarh is not a castle built in the air. The architecture of Chandigarh could not ignore the compelling needs of Indian society and stubborn cultural values, despite all its freedom from the fetters of past traditions. There is no city planning that could succeed in the face of facts of our society, habits of our people, lapses of administration and lack of education and health. Still Chandigarh is better off, thanks to Corbusier who took care of its social aspects to some extent. All said and done, Chandigarh is still the best city and is the cynosure of all eyes.”

CONTEMPORARY LANDMARKS IN CHANDIGARH

THE CAPITOL COMPLEX

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The Capitol Complex, which is at present the seat of the State Administrations of both Punjab and Haryana, is spread over an area of 100 hectares between the city and Shivalik Hills. The prominence accorded to this area symbolises the glorification of Independence attained after a long and sustained political struggle. The main components of the Capitol are the Secretariat, the Assembly, the High Court, the Museum of Knowledge (not constructed yet) and other monuments. To segregate pedestrian and vehicular movement, the land is arranged in two levels: a pedestrian plaza and five metres below it a level of roads and parking spaces. The spoil heaps of earth removed from the excavated grounds have been accumulated in several artificial mounds on which shrubbery is planted. The water bodies are planned to modulate the microclimate. The buildings, trees and hills are reflected in these ponds, thereby producing a pleasing effect.

The 10-storied Secretariat houses administrative offices, those of ministers and of all ministerial agencies. The building is oriented to obtain the maximum benefit of the wind direction for effective cross-ventilation and to cause minimum obstruction to the view of the Shivalik Hills from elsewhere in the city. The undulatory glass-panels are well protected against the sun and rain by a grill of brise-soleil on the two principle facades. The Secretariat is topped by a roof-garden which has been designed not only to insulate the building against the direct rays of the sun but also to provide an excellent recreational place.

The High court symbolises three ideas in its structure-the majesty of law, the shelter of law and power and fear of law. The working areas in the building are shielded by brise-soleil on the north-west and south-east facades. A double roof has been provided to protect the entire structure from the sun. The upper projecting roof in the form of a row of arches gives the feeling of the shelter of law. The space between the upper parasol roof and lower flat roof is left open to allow free movement of air, cooling the interiors considerably. A small serpent fountain at the entrance signifies the power and fear of law.

The Assembly Hall is square in plan. The Assembly Chamber, in the form of a hyperbolic shell, is surrounded by ceremonial space. This circulation space is planned as a dimly lit, triple-height, columned hall for informal meetings and discussions. On three sides a bank of offices is protected by louvers. The great portico, on the fourth side, facing the High Court, consists of eight thin piers. These piers, which are perforated to frame glimpses of the Shivalik Hills, support a huge trough from which rain water spills out at either end, falling into reflecting pools. Inspired by the form of the cooling towers of a power station near Ahmedabad, Le Corbusier designed the hyperbolic shell of the Assembly Chamber.

Apart from these buildings, the architect introduced certain symbols in the campus. These incorporate the theme of Corbusier’s architectural philosophy and were envisioned to punctuate the cross-axis of the Capitol Complex. These monuments included the Martyrs Memorial, the Tower of Shadows, the Open Hand, and the Trench of Consideration etc.

THE SUKHNA LAKE

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The Sukhna Lake is one of the most important components of the city of Chandigarh. According to the inscriptions on a concrete cube at lake, “The founders of Chandigarh have offered this lake and dam to the citizens of the new city so that they may escape the humdrum of the city life and enjoy the beauty of nature in peace and silence.” Le Corbusier had foreseen that the residents of the city would be drawn to this ‘zone of peace’ for the ‘care of body and spirit’. The Lake was created in 1958 by constructing an earthen dam about three-kilometre long and 14-metre high across the Sukhna Choe, a seasonal rivulet to the north-east of the city. The total catchment area of the lake is 4207 hectares. Corbusier designed a gateway to the lake as well as the memorial stone commemorating the construction of dam. The earthen dam, pitched with stone, is curvilinear in form and is in full harmony with the natural surroundings. Despite being artificially formed it can easily compete with any natural lake in its superb serenity and picturesque settings lent to it by the ever changing colours of mountains, standing almost on its edge.

The serenity of the vast spread of water of the lake soothes the eye of the visitor. On sun-scorched summer days, the cool breezes refresh tired sprits. At each hour of the day, the lake offers a different view, a variegated quality of light which like a kaleidoscope is ever-pleasing and ever-new to its beholders. The curvilinear profile of the southern bank of the lake seems to merge into the Shivalik Hills. The lake embankment made of piles of boulders hold the Sukhna water in a wide embrace. Strollers and joggers have the splendid view of the jagged profile of the mountains which advance along the lake waters. In the Centre, a water pump has been camouflaged by an eye-catching structure designed by Pierre Jeanneret. The ramp encircling the building and leading to the terrace is itself very picturesque. Residents and visitors gather here for picnics, and sports lovers come for boating, sculling and yachting. It also plays host to flocks of migratory birds. It has become a major tourist spot and an important stopover on the itinerary of visitors to this part of the country.

THE LAKE CLUB33340021

The Lake Club is a hub of various aquatic sports in the city. It is located on the south-western edge of the Sukhna Lake. Designed by Le Corbusier, the profile of Lake Club building is deliberately kept low as a mark of respect for nature. The building is single storied with a simple concrete facade along the Lake shore and has a court yard in the Centre and built up area along its three sides. It has a restaurant on the south-eastern side. The campus also includes a swimming pool and tennis courts. The Club provides training for boating, yachting and rowing.

THE ROCK GARDEN

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The rock Garden is situated on the banks of a seasonal rivulet on the north-east edge of Chandigarh. Waste material like broken bangles, fused bulbs and tube lamps, electric insulators, pebbles, broken china, bits of cloth and various other kinds of left-overs have been used in this garden. In a dream Nek Chand-the creator of this garden saw a king and a queen, their glory and the subsequent fall of their kingdom. Inspired, he decided to rebuild a beautiful kingdom in the memory of the king and the queen and planned the Rock Garden on a similar mythological theme.

The garden has been planned without disturbing thr existing topography, landscape and environment of the site. The main entry is through a low porch connected with a passage with embankments on both sides. Pieces of stones and rocks, evoking images of animals and humans, are displayed here. A shallow pool enhances the beauty of this part of the garden. Then there is a hut on a lower level from where Nek Chand made a modest beginning of constructing the Rock Garden. Beyond the hut there is a valley which is accessible through a narrow passage flanked by artificial hillocks on both sides.

The valley contains an open- air theatre, waterfalls and exquisite sculptures. In this valley Nek Chand’s art of sculpture finds expression in a superb fashion. An uprooted tree which once existed at this site has not only been preserved but has been transformed into a unique piece of sculpture. The sculptures of fossils are also on display. The railings, parapets, columns, waterfalls, and bridges in the valley have a unique artistic touch. Tar-drums have been used horizontally all along the passage to make a railing.

Adjacent to the valley is a symbolic village which is accessible through a narrow path between man-made hillocks. It is located on the south-east of the garden and symbolises the dwelling place of an imaginary king’s subjects. The king’s durbar area has a variety of spaces. The skyline has small kiosks on the top with their roofs resembling a throne. Here two grassy terraces at different levels are linked together by a flight of steps. Then there are numerous chambers which are connected with each other by narrow passageways and series of low arches. Each chamber has its own identity without losing its relation with the overall scheme. Thousands of sculptures are displayed in these chambers. There are bullocks, monkeys, peacocks, party scenes, soldiers and dancers and ordinary village folks. The trees and the shrubs have been carefully set so as to complement the contents of each chamber.

THE CITY CENTRE

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The City Centre is literally located centrally in Sector 17, at the junction of two fast-traffic (V2) roads, one bringing in public transport and general traffic from outside the city and the other forming a ceremonial approach to the Capitol Complex. It spreads over an area of 97 hectares and is divided broadly into two zones. The north-eastern zone is earmarked for major commercial and civic functions and the south-western zone accommodates the functions of the local administration. The entire commercial district, horizontal in character, is bordered by two rows of high rise buildings along its north-west and south-east edges. Planned to cater to the diverse needs of government and semi-government agencies, these buildings too have a controlled volume and facade. Their tilted axis not only helps in achieving a north-south orientation but also contributes a lot towards getting a rhythmic street picture.

A central piazza, marking the crossing of two wide promenades running north-east to south-west and north-west to south-east, is the hallmark of the City Centre. Important civic and commercial buildings are sited around this piazza. An over bridge passing through the buildings at first level facilitates the movement of vehicular traffic across the City Centre without interfering with the pedestrian piazza below. To ensure uniform and orderly development, strict architectural and material controls are applied. To break the monotony of concrete structures, a linear commercial strip which distinguishes the two zones is designed with a simple and functional facade in exposed brick.

THE CULTURAL CENTRE

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The Cultural Centre on the fringe of the Leisure Valley in Sector-10 is spread over a seven-hectare linear strip of land. The approach to the campus is from an exclusive and quite road running on its north-western side. The Centre includes a museum-cum-art gallery, a temporary exhibition pavilion now converted to city museum, a museum devoted to the evolution of man and an art college.

The Museum and Art Gallery, the most impressive and massive building of the campus, is situated in the centre of this cultural belt. Like Le Corbusier’s museums at Ahmedabad and Tokyo, the design of this building also reflects quiet splendor and majestic proportions. It houses a vast range of historical and contemporary paintings and sculptures. The building is square in plan, 52×52 metres, with R.C.C. columns and beams. Vertically it has three levels, parts of which are either of double height or triple height, with a system of clerestory lighting on top for uniform illumination. The partially enclosed ground floor contains a reception hall, work-shops and storage space besides a jutting out block for a cafeteria a detached structure for a lecture hall. The main display area is on the first level and is accessible through a ramp in the triple-height entrance hall. The second level is utilised for administrative offices, a library, etc.

Adjacent to this museum is located the City Museum (earlier temporary exhibition pavilion). It is designed in the form of two umbrellas, each measuring 14 by 14 metres. It has four levels which are accessible through a stair case and a ramp. On top, the covered terrace is an ideal place for artists to work and commands a panoramic view of the Shivalik Hills.

COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE & ART

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For the tourist interested in the modern architecture of Le Corbusier, the College of Architecture in Sector-12 and College of Art and Craft in Sector-10 are the most suitable venues. Both the colleges have similar designs. The buildings are composed of a number of large studios and classrooms grouped around internal courtyards. Each studio has an interesting roof which rises towards the north to accommodate large, high-level undulatory glazing in typical Corbusian vocabulary. The faculty rooms and other utility areas have low flat ceiling with individual skylights in the form of barrel vaults. The facades both of the east and the west are predominantly blank but are enlivened by the authentic expression of roof configurations together with narrow vertical slits and concrete gargoyles. The front facade is adorned with a deep screen of pre-cast concrete, a sort of miniature brise-soleil which is in consonance with the scale of the buildings.

THE LEISURE VALLEY

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Stretching through the heart of Chandigarh is an eight-kilometre long parkland-the Leisure Valley. Like a garland of gardens, it extends from the northern to southern extremity of Chandigarh. The Leisure Valley is an extraordinary creation for it has been imaginatively sculpted out of an eroded valley, with a seasonal rivulet running as a natural drain for the adjoining catchment area. Le Corbusier with his deep rooted respect for nature took full advantage of the natural lay of land. He proposed that the existing valley be retained and converted into continuous parkland for ‘care of body and spirit’.

The Leisure Valley is a charming continuum of various theme gardens. A serpentine walkway meanders through the undulating meadows of the valley, and takes one through parterres, groves of trees, fountains and bridges. Birds, squirrels, rocks and rolling greens accompany one on a slow, steady and soulful meandering.

The journey through the Leisure Valley starts at the Rajindra Park located at the far northern end of the valley. Next to this park the nallah has been developed into a Bougainvillea Park spread over eight hectares of land in Sector-3. It consists of dome-shaped bowers, arcades and pavilions on which different varieties of bougainvillea climb up and display their petals and blooms in a mosaic of leaves and biomorphic shapes. Adjoining the Bougainvillea Park in Sector-3 is a Flower Garden of Annuals. In the spring time, this garden is at its colourful best. Moving along the Leisure Valley brings the visitor to the second part in Sector-10 where it takes on the character of a Tranquil Garden. Parts of the garden have seasonal flowers and part accommodates sculptures by renowned sculptors. The most striking element is the thick grove of bamboos, bordering the banks of the seasonal rivulet, which overflows during the monsoons.

 Further across the road, is the famous Rose Garden located in Sector-16. It spreads over 12 hectares of land and has 1600 varieties of roses. It is perhaps the largest rose garden in Asia. The focus of the rose-bedecked undulations is the central water feature. A powerful water-jet darts high into the air, sprinkling a soothing spray over charmed visitors, who gather here in large numbers during summers. Beyond the Rose Garden, towards the south, the Leisure Valley becomes a Garden of Tranquility or more popularly known as Shanti Kunj. A Japanese-style style garden is created by placid water pools and idyllic groves of shady trees. It is ideal for those who seek ‘the bliss of solitude’ in the comforting lap of nature.

 As the Leisure Valley rolls down towards the south-western part of the city, it expresses itself through different gardens. In Sector-23, there is a Children Traffic Park. Further rolling down on the same serpentine walkway, the valley reaches the Hibiscus Garden in Sector-36. About 40 different varieties of hibiscus shrubs have been planted in this garden.

The Fragrance Garden is another major attraction in this valley. Plants with different fragrances at different times of the day have been planted. A Garden of Rare Plants has also been developed.

THE PANJAB UNIVERSITY

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The Panjab University campus is located on a 145-hectare site in Sector-14 on the north-west end of Chandigarh. The sprawling campus has been divided into three zones-an academic area in the north-east, a sports area in the middle and staff housing in the south-west. The science blocks have been grouped together and are separated from the arts blocks by a ceremonial avenue which runs from an open air theatre to a yet-to-be-constructed convocation hall. The Science Faculty consists of three storied which look alike but have different designs. The Arts Faculty departments are housed in blocks which are laid out uniformly with a repetitive design. A museum which forms part of the Arts Faculty consists of 16 square units. These units are arranged around an irregular court which also acts as an outdoor space for sculptures. The building is designed in a way to achieve easy approach to and return from the exhibits without having to walk through the entire exhibition area.

The five-storied library is situated approximately in the Centre of the area covered by the teaching departments. Two spacious reading halls have been provided-one for the sciences and other for the humanities. The north-east facade has concrete louvers which provide shade to the glazing. A series of projecting concrete balconies give plasticity to the south-west façade. A pool of water not only cools the flitting breezes but also lends the place certain serenity.

The Student Centre is located near the library and serves as a rendezvous for the youth. It is a four-storied cylindrical structure. Full glazing has been provided on the cafeteria sides to catch glimpses of the surrounding landscape.

The magnificent Gandhi Bhavan was established on the campus to promote Gandhian philosophy. Its aims are to make the relevant literature available and to hold study classes and discussions on Mahatma Gandhi’s life and works. These three basic functions materialise into three-winged structure jutting out in three directions. The building has been placed in a pool of limpid water to infuse calm and quiet and to breathe peace all around. Gandhian ideals are symbolised by the pointed and rounded forms of the building. The pointed forms suggest the sharp edge of truth and the rounded forms indicate harmony.

The Administrative Block, which occupies a dominant position on the campus, consists of basement and five floors. Each floor projects to the outside from the floor below, thus projection and shade are provided to the glazing.

ARCHITECTURAL GETAWAYS IN PROXIMITY

MUGHAL GARDEN, PINJORE

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The Mughal Garden Pinjore is located on the foothills of lower Shivalik ranges, about 20 kilometres from Chandigarh on Chandigarh-Shimla Road. This is a traditional Mughal garden, created in the 17th century by Nawab Fidal Khan, architect to Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. The garden is laid out over more than 40 hectares on a sloping site with fountains and pavilions. It is planned on the classical charbagh pattern, given the area a central waterway.

Both sides of this waterway are covered with the patches of green bordered with flowers and shaded by trees like the traditional palm, the cypress and magnolia. The Garden has cool, shady walks and flagged pathways which run to the outer reaches of creeper-covered walls. The stiff outer wall of the Garden is reminiscent of the fort walls, which has now all around dieter pavilions housing the zoo. Palm trees, shapely cypresses, and dense mango groves add to a touch of mystery to the garden. A water course traipsing from level to level sparkles in the sunlight, its pools reflecting white shining pavilions and balconies etched high against a blue sky.

The graceful arched balconies, and tinkling fountains, luxuriant green lawns and murmuring watercourse, limpid pools, shady walks and colourful flowerbeds, unusual descending terraces and monumental gateways-all are carefully planned to create a special effect. Unlike other Mughal gardens, the seven terraces at Pinjore, instead of ascending, descend into the distance and achieve an almost magical effect.

From the stately Sheesh Mahal built in the Rajasthani-Mughal style, the watercourse with its never-ending bubbling music cascades from terrace to terrace, flow under the towering Rang Mahal, and then playing around the Jal Mahal. This is one of the most fascinating Mughal Gardens and is a very popular tourist spot not only for holiday makers, but also for architects and archaeologists.

M.C. ZOOLOGICAL PARK, CHHATBIR

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The unique Chhatbir Zoological Park is located on the banks of the Ghaggar River, 20 km from Chandigarh on the Patiala-Chandigarh road in Punjab. This undulating forest land of 200 hectares is protected against flooding by an embankment on three sides and a flood drain on the fourth. Meandering paths gradually open up the various vistas, at the same time providing a sense of direction to the visitors. The animal enclosures are designed to suit specific liking of different species. Their design also enables the animals and human beings to see each other without obstructing vision. The enclosures are dispersed so as to create a variety of spaces and are grouped to facilitate feeding and other managerial requirements.

The existing low-lying ditch on the north-west side has been converted into a shallow lake covering about 8 hectares, which attracts birds in winter. A unique lion safari spread over 8 hectares allows free movement of lions, and visitors are taken around in caged vehicles. A physically segregated deer safari covers an area of 12 hectares. To harmonies built-forms with natural landscape, all buildings like the aquarium, the serpent caves, the crocodile farm, the museum, etc. have been kept single-storied. 

AAM KHAS BAGH, SIRHIND

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The Aam Kha Bagh, Sirhind is located 40 kilometres from Chandigarh on Chandigarh-Sirhind- Patiala Road. Built by the Mughals, it is a beautiful garden of great historical value. As its name denotes it was a highway-inn for the use of royalty as well as common people. It was initially built by Babar and later extended/renovated by the emperor Shah Jahan. The Bagh is surrounded by a high crenellated wall and cooled with water flowing in disciplined courses. It contained both a public (Aam) area and a private (Khas) section, thus it was known as the Aam Khas Bagh. In its heydays, it had a double storied royal pavilion with beautiful murals on its walls, baths, underground water cooled chambers, a unique hydraulic system for fountains and plenty of accommodation for weary travelers. Although it was sacked by the enemies of Mughals, but even the ruins are so magnificent it is well worth visiting.

FLOATING RESTAURANT, SIRHIND

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Owned by the Punjab Tourism Development Corporation, the Floating Restaurant at Sirhind is a roadside facility for the tourists and travelers to relax a while. It is the first floating restaurant of its kind in India. Located on the waters of the Bhakra Mainline Canal between Gobindgarh and Sirhind, it is approachable from Sher Shah Suri Marg.

The canal is 6 metres deep and 45 metres wide at this point. A lightweight steel structure with a vaulted roof rests on a wooden deck which floats on five cylinders tied together. The deck serves as an extension of an indoor seating area and is bridged to both banks of the canal. Due to the uniqueness of its structure and the immanence of celestial light in the natural setting, the restaurant is a popular pleasure spot. Inside the restaurant, part of the wooden flooring gives way to transparent glass panels, enabling the visitors to see the flowing blue water underneath. Another block with an identical roofs cape is situated on the western bank of the canal. It contains the principle kitchen, a beer bar and a restaurant.

THE FORT NALAGARH

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The Fort Nalagarh–now functioning as a Heritage Hotel, is located about 60 kilometres from Chandigarh in Solan district of Himachal Pradesh. The Fort was built in 1421 during the reign of of Raja Bikram Chand. It was ruled by ruled by the Chandra Rajputs who originated from Chanderi in Bundelkhand reigon of Central India. The Fort is located on a hillock at the foothills of the Himalayas and is surrounded by endless acres of greenery. Replete with all modern amenities, the Fort Nalagarh is an ideal retreat away from the madding crowd. Nalagarh is the gateway to Himachal Pradesh. By virtue of its location it affords a panoramic view of the Shivalik Hills beyond the Sirsa River. The famous Naina Devi Temple is 60 kilometres from the Fort and is visible from the ramparts on a clear day.

LE CORBUSIER’S HERITAGE: Visual Expressions of Chandigarh

Cultural Buildings:

For detailed reading please refer our book:

Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret: The Indian Architecture

https://www.amazon.com/Corbusier-Pierre-Jeanneret-Indian-Architecture/dp/1495906256/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1474355424&sr=8-1&keywords=le+corbusier+and+pierre+jeanneret+the+indian+architecture

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